Sunday’s sermon: Faith Out of Discord

Text used – Acts 15:1-18


  • There’s a short story by Dr. Seuss called “The Zax” which can be found in the book The Sneetches and Other Short Stories[1] (originally published in 1953).
    • 2 characters: a north-going Zax and a south-going Zax
    • Paths of these two characters just happen to meet head-on
    • Both Zax refuse to alter their course by even a single side step
    • Stand there arguing with each other in perpetuity as the world goes on around them because neither is willing to give an inch
      • World develops around them
      • Highway is built over them
      • But they continue to stand there, neither of them actually going anywhere anymore, because “this is who I am, and this is the way I do things, this is the way I’ve always done things, and no one can make me change! Things would be so much easier, so much better, if you did them my way because clearly, my way is the right way, so you must be wrong!”
        • An attitude that doesn’t work out terribly well for the Zax → still standing there arguing at the end of the story (with the distinctly Seussian implication that they’re still standing there arguing to this day)
        • An attitude certainly not confined to the pages of whimsically-rhyming children’s books
          • Attitude that has permeated the halls of Congress
          • Attitude that has polluted many relationships – families, friends, co-workers, neighbors
          • Attitude that has plagued many communities of all sizes – small towns all the way up to big, teeming cities
          • Attitude that has pervaded even the stained-glass beauty of the Church → In fact, it’s an attitude that’s as old as Christianity itself. It’s the very attitude that sent Jesus to the cross because those in power felt threatened by the message Jesus was spreading. And clearly, from our Scripture reading this morning, it didn’t stop there.
  • Today’s text sounds like it could have come out of contemporary headlines
    • Background: Paul and Barnabas have returned to the city of Antioch (modern day south-central Turkey) after one of their long, evangelizing/church-planting journeys – text leading up to what we read this morning: They sailed to Antioch, where they had been entrusted by God’s grace to the work they had now completed. On their arrival, they gathered the church together and reported everything that God had accomplished through their activity, and how God had opened a door of faith for the Gentiles. They stayed with the disciples a long time.[2]
      • Important point: Paul and Barnabas reported to the church in Antioch “how God had opened a door of faith for the Gentiles” → Remember that at the very beginning of the early church, the vast majority of those who were Christians were also Jews. There were a few Gentiles that Jesus had interacted with during his ministry, but within the congregation of the early church, they were certainly the exception, not the rule. Yet on the other hand, remember that all of Paul’s many long mission journeys took him only into Gentile lands, so Paul’s entire life and mission was to bring the good news of Jesus Christ and God’s love to Gentiles … to The Other.
        • People that the Jews had grown up being taught not to mingle or intermarry with
        • People that had probably conquered or oppressed the Jews at some point in their long and difficult history
        • People whose wide array of gods certainly looked nothing like Israel’s God
        • And yet here were Paul and his helpers taking the good news of Jesus Christ to these Gentiles.
    • Clearly this is where the problem arises – laid out in the beginning of our text for this morning: Some people came down from Judea teaching the family of believers, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom we’ve received from Moses, you can’t be saved.”[3] → “This is who we are, and this is the way we do things, this is the way we’ve always done things, and no one can make us change! Things would be so much easier, so much better, if you did them our way because clearly, our way is the right way, so you must be wrong!” Even more dangerous: “If you want to be part of us, you have to be like us. You have to look like us on the most intimate, visceral level. Your discomfort doesn’t matter. Your pain doesn’t matter. If you don’t look like us, you don’t belong.”
      • Plenty of times this same mentality has been applied throughout history … never for good → most immediate example that comes to mind: Indian boarding schools
        • Established through the Civilization Fund Act (1819)
        • Established for the sole purpose of obliterating Native culture and language all across the country → America’s attempt to solve the “Indian problem”
          • From an article in The Atlantic marking the 200 yr. anniversary back in 2019: This is what achieving civilization looked like in practice: Students were stripped of all things associated with Native life. Their long hair, a source of pride for many Native peoples, was cut short, usually into identical bowl haircuts. They exchanged traditional clothing for uniforms, and embarked on a life influenced by strict military-style regimentation. Students were physically punished for speaking their Native languages. Contact with family and community members was discouraged or forbidden altogether.[4] → “If you want to be part of us, you have to be like us. You have to look like us on the most intimate, visceral level. Your discomfort doesn’t matter. Your pain doesn’t matter. If you don’t look like us, you don’t belong.” Friends, this is a legacy that the Presbyterian Church participated in. This is a legacy for which we need to repent.
            • Work that the PC(USA) has recently embarked on[5]But we’ve still got a long way to go.
    • In today’s reading, Paul and Barnabas push back → argue their point until it becomes clear that they need some 3rd party intervention → take the matter to the apostles and elders in Jerusalem (This certainly was no small feat. It required a journey of roughly 300 miles. And yet, they went.) → arrive in Jerusalem → both sides make their arguments before the apostles and elders → apostles and elders confer and come to their conclusion (delivered by Peter) – text: “Fellow believers, you know that, early on, God chose me from among you as the one through whom the Gentiles would hear the word of the gospel and come to believe. God, who knows people’s deepest thoughts and desires, confirmed this by giving them the Holy Spirit, just as he did to us. He made no distinction between us and them, but purified their deepest thoughts and desires through faith. Why then are you now challenging God by placing a burden on the shoulders of these disciples that neither we nor our ancestors could bear? On the contrary, we believe that we and they are saved in the same way, by the grace of the Lord Jesus.”[6]
      • Paul and Barnabas put a powerful and inspiring emphasis on Peter’s words with more stories of “all the signs and wonders God did among the Gentiles through their activity”[7] → This is their testimony. This is their public witness of the faith that God has not only worked through them but in them.
      • Apostle James puts the final note on the assembly by quoting words of hope and promise and restoration from the prophet Amos, not just for the Jews, but for all – text (God speaking): I will rebuild what has been torn down. I will restore it so that the rest of humanity will seek the Lord, even all the Gentiles who belong to me.[8]
  • Friends, we cannot deny that change is difficult, especially for something like the Church – something that is big and expansive in structure and doctrine, something that is old and established, something that is near and dear to the hearts of many. But change happens. Change comes. All the time. No matter what.
    • Think back to the Zax who stood arguing about who would change and who would not → The longer they stood there, the more they argued, and the more they argued, the longer they stood there. Little did they realize that in refusing to give, they’d both already changed who they were. The minute they refused to change – the minute they refused to open their minds and eyes and hearts to a new idea, a new possibility, a new way – they ceased becoming a north-going Zax and a south-going Zax because they weren’t going anywhere anymore! They weren’t going north or south. They were standing still. They were stuck. That core element of their identities that defined them so deeply that they couldn’t let go of it was necessarily erased by their obstinance and unwillingness to find common ground.
      • Today’s Scripture = tale of hope and tale of warning about who we can become and what can become of us when we try to cling so desperately to church “the way we’ve always done it” or when we open our hearts and our doors to something new
        • Spill the Beans commentary: Perhaps what is significant is that debates such as the one in Acts 15 are the mark of the church moving beyond what it originally understood itself to be. There were no signposts, no one had been this way before, and so as the church faced these open seas, the whole structure creaked like a boat suddenly changing direction as it tried to come to terms with what it understood itself now to be.[9]
    • Here’s the crazy thing, all. This Church – capital C “Church,” as in the whole body of Christ, all believers, the Church universal … this Church that we think is constant and unchanging is far from it.
      • Late Phyllis Tickle, Christian writer who was one of the most respected and internationally renowned authorities on religion in America until her death in 2015, wrote a book called The Great Emergence: How Christianity is Changing and Why[10] → In this book, Tickle talks about how, every 500 yrs., Christianity goes through a shift – a major shift. She playfully calls these times “rummage sales – when the church cleans out its attic.”[11]
        • 500 yrs. after the death of Christ = councils that established things like which books would be included in the Bible, what was sound doctrine and what was heresy, the established structure of the church
        • 500 yrs. after the councils (1054 C.E.) = The Great Schism → disagreement which ended up establishing the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western/Roman Catholic Church
        • 500 yrs. after the Great Schism (1517) = The Reformation → birth of Protestantism and the thousands of branches that have grown out of that central Christian trunk since then
        • And if you add 500 to 1517, friends, you’ll realize that we are exactly there. 2017 was the 500 yrs. anniversary of Luther’s 95 theses being nailed to the door of that church in Wittenberg. And here we are, 4 yrs. past that anniversary. We are in the throes of just such a time of change, and like those in our Scripture reading this morning, we don’t know what waits for us on the other side. We don’t know what the Church will look like. But as Peter reminded those early Christians and reminds us even today, God is working. God, who knows people’s deepest thoughts and desires. God, who makes no distinction between us and them (no matter how we choose to define “us” and “them”). God, who saves everyone in the same way: by the grace of Jesus Christ. So as this change swirls around us, how will we let it change us? Will we be Zax who dig their heels and lose themselves in the argument and the discord and the refusal to try something new? Or will we be like the early church and open ourselves up to all the beauty and diversity and newness that’s coming? Amen.

[1] Dr. Seuss. The Sneetches and Other Short Stories. (New York: Random House), 1953.

[2] Acts 14:26-28.

[3] Acts 15:1.

[4] Mary Annette Pember. “Death by Civilization: Thousands of Native American children were forced to attend boarding schools created to strip them of their culture. My mother was one of them” from The Atlantic, Posted Mar. 8, 2019, accessed May 2, 2021.


[6] Acts 15:7-11.

[7] Acts 15:12.

[8] Acts 15:16b-17a (quoting Amos 9:11-12).

[9] “Easter 5 – Sunday 14 May 2017: Bible notes – What Is The Nature Of The Church?” from Spill the Beans: Worship and Learning Resources for All Ages, iss. 22. © 2017 by Spill the Beans Resource Team,

[10] Phyllis Tickle. The Great Emergence: How Christianity is Changing and Why. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books), 2008.

[11] Ibid, 19.

Sunday’s sermon: Stay With It

Text used – Acts 8:26-39

  • There’s a scene at the very end J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Fellowship of the Ring[1] – the first part of the Lord of the Rings trilogy – that’s been running through my head this week. I had planned on reading the short passage to you, but when I looked at it again, I realized (with a bit of chagrin) that the part that’s been running through my head is one of those parts that they altered when Peter Jackson made The Fellowship of the Ring into a movie 20 yrs. ago in 2001.[2] So let me tell you about this scene:
    • Basic story of the Lord of the Rings
      • Frodo, a Hobbit from the Shire, finds and evil, master ring sought after by the dark Lord Sauron → if Sauron gains possession of the ring, it will mean the end of freedom for the entire world → Frodo is tasked with traveling into the heart of enemy territory and destroying the ring → 9 traveling companions that accompany him (make up the fellowship): Gimli, the dwarf; Legolas, the elf; 2 men: Boromir and Aragorn; Gandalf, the wizard; and 3 other hobbits: Pippin, Merry, and Samwise Gamgee (Frodo’s gardener and the one who is by far the least excited to be so far from home caught up in all the danger and drama of such an adventure)
    • So as I said, the scene that has been occupying my mind this week comes at the end of The Fellowship of the Ring when things for this fellowship have gone from bad to worse. Their company has already started to splinter, and Frodo realizes that in order to keep both his companions and the ring safe, he must continue on alone. So while the others are all occupied with yet another battle, Frodo steals back to their boats, and sets out on his own. Or at least … he tries to.
      • Paddling away from the shore all alone
      • Sam, who has figured out what Frodo is doing, comes running through the forest → reaches the edge of the water just as Frodo is paddling away (maybe 30 ft. out from shore, clearly already in deeper water) → cries out, “No, no, no! Frodo! Mr. Frodo!”
      • Frodo says to himself as he continues paddling, “No, Sam.”
      • Sam hesitates a moment → begins wading deeper and deeper in the water
      • Frodo hollers at Sam to go back: “I’m going to Mordor alone!”
      • Sam’s response (all the while wading deeper and deeper): “Of course you are … and I’m coming with you!”
    • The dedication and devotion, the unconditional and inescapable love in this scene is palpable. It’s what drives the scene, and it’s what imprints it on your memory when you see it. Despite Frodo’s intention and concerted effort to strike out on his own, despite his belief that his friends and companions are better off without him, Sam comes after him. Sam follows him. Sam stays with him which, in the end, makes all the difference.
      • Journey that changes both Frodo and Sam → changes that would never have been possible – changes they never would have made it through – if they hadn’t been together
  • Scripture reading this morning = story of Philip and the Ethiopian eunuch – story of another profoundly transformative journey that wouldn’t have happened had any of the participants not been present → So let’s talk about these main players a bit.
    • Philip, the Evangelist (not to be confused with Philip the Apostle) → This is not the Philip called by Jesus to be a disciple along with Andrew, Peter, and Nathanael in John 1.[3] This is a different Philip.
      • Back in Acts 2, we have the story of Pentecost and the birth of the early church, and after that early church started, we read that the community of believers grew exponentially – text: The believers devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching, to the community, to their shared meals, and to their prayers. … They praised God and demonstrated God’s goodness to everyone. The Lord added daily to the community those who were being saved.[4]
      • By Acts 6, the size of the faith community had grown so large that the original apostles decided to appoint 7 leaders to help ensure the fair distribution of resources to everyone → one of these 7 was Philip, the Evangelist[5]
        • Beginning of Acts 8 makes it clear that it’s this Philip – Philip, the Evangelist – who’s involved in our story today, not Philip, the Apostle
    • Okay, so what about the Ethiopian eunuch? What do we know about him? – a bit of a juxtaposition → Let me read you a description by Rev. Dr. Margaret Aymer, professor of New Testament studies at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary: a man, an Ethiopian, a eunuch, a court official over the treasury of the [Ethiopian queen], a pilgrim coming from Jerusalem, a reader of the prophet Isaiah. Luke’s list illuminates the power and the marginality of the unnamed chariot-rider. His wealth and literacy are signified by his chariot and the scroll of Isaiah. He is an Ethiopian, a descriptor likely referring to the color of his skin, and possibly also to traditional items of clothing. As Jews were exiled to Ethiopia after the Babylonian conquest (Zephaniah 3:10), and as he has just made a pilgrimage to the Temple, he may well be a Jew. Five times over the entire narrative, Luke calls this person a eunuch—a castrated man. Eunuchs were easily spotted, being shorter and softer than their peers, and usually beardless. Enslaved boys and men working in positions of power were often castrated to render them infertile and ensure the purity of the royal line. Being a eunuch would have restricted his access to the portion of the Temple reserved for Jewish men, even if he were born a Jewish male (Deuteronomy 23:1)[6] → So this man was a man of power and position, of wealth and privilege … but only up to a point. He’s someone who was essential to the royal household, but excluded from the house of God. He’s someone who held great power and great knowledge but was only trust with those things because of the physical alterations that had most likely been forced on him when he was jus a boy. He was different. He was Other. And yet it was to him that the Holy Spirit directed Philip.
  • So let’s dig into the heart of our story a bit: Angel directs Philip to a specific place and time: travel the road from Jerusalem to Gaza at noon → as Philip is traveling, we’re also told that this Ethiopian eunuch is making a similar journey in his chariot (an incredible luxury at the time) while reading a scroll containing the words of the prophet Isaiah (another incredible luxury) → text: The Spirit told Philip, “Approach this carriage and stay with it.” Running up to the carriage, Philip heard the man reading the prophet Isaiah. He asked, “Do you really understand what you are reading?” The man replied, “Without someone to guide me, how can I?” Then he invited Philip to climb up and sit with him.[7] → Acts relays a particular passage out of Is 53[8] which the eunuch had been reading → Philip starts with that passage and “proclaimed the good news about Jesus to him”[9] → results in the Ethiopian eunuch being so moved that the minute he spies some water along this desert road that they’re traveling, he orders the carriage to halt so Philip can baptize him on the spot
    • I mean, we have to admit that this is quite the powerful, dramatic, inspiring story, is it not? There’s action. There’s heart. There’s the mysterious but purposeful movement of the Holy Spirit. There’s a sensational, life-changing ending. There’s even a bit of a cliffhanger because after the impromptu baptism, we’re told “the Lord’s Spirit suddenly took Philip away.” Whoosh! Gone! It’s like a scene straight out of some epic movie, right?
    • Because it’s so epic – because it’s such an enthralling story – there are a lot of important elements of this story that we could focus on today:
      • Could focus on the passage from Is that Philip uses as his jumping-off point → passage about how Jesus would suffer humiliation and injustice despite his innocence
      • Could focus on how Philip proclaimed the good news from Scripture → Gr. = literally “evangelize”
      • Could focus on the powerful pull of Philip’s testimony in that it inspired the eunuch to immediately ask to be baptized into this new life and this new faith
      • Could even focus on the dramatic nature of the Holy Spirit, first directing Philip to this mysterious time-and-place-but-no-clear-purpose meeting, then whisking him away out of nowhere after he had completed the baptism
        • Our text this morning: When they came up out of the water, the Lord’s Spirit suddenly took Philip away. The eunuch never saw him again but went on his way rejoicing.[10]
        • Other versions even more dramatic (believe it or not): When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; the eunuch saw him no more and went on his way rejoicing.[11] (NRSV)
  • But there’s another part of this story that really captured my attention and my heart this week. Let me read that part to you again: The Spirit told Philip, “Approach this carriage and stay with it.” Running up to the carriage, Philip heard the man reading the prophet Isaiah. He asked, “Do you really understand what you are reading?” The man replied, “Without someone to guide me, how can I?” Then he invited Philip to climb up and sit with him.[12] → It’s the moment when the Holy Spirit directs Philip to the chariot in the first place – the moment when Philip is given his mission. And it’s this part that’s stayed with me because of one seemingly-simple phrase: “Approach this carriage and stay with it.Stay with it.
    • As I said, phrase seems to be a simple one but, in actuality, is far from simple → Gr. “stay with it” = powerful word, indeed
      • Join closely together
      • Unite with
      • Cling to
      • Even “become a follower”
      • Gr. for “glue”
      • Connotations of intimacy, of a connection that is not fleeting but has staying power → word often used when referring to marriage
    • The second he heard this word – this command – Philip would have understood that this was no quick and simple task the Holy Spirit was calling him to.
      • In truth, we have no idea how long this task actually took! → All that our passage tells us is that somewhere along the way from Jerusalem to Gaza, after hearing Philip’s testimony about the good news of Jesus Christ, the eunuch chooses to be baptized.
        • Jerusalem to Gaza = roughly 76 mile journey (by today’s roads, anyway) → more than a day’s journey by horse and carriage, possibly even more than two days
    • When he heard the Holy Spirit’s direction, there’s no way Philip could have known how long this mission would take – how long he would be required to stay with this man … this man whom he didn’t even know, whose life story was a mystery to him. And yet, when Philip heard the Holy Spirit direct him to “approach this carriage and stay with it,” he didn’t even hesitate. Not for a moment. – text: Running up to the carriage, Philip heard the man reading the prophet Isaiah.[13] → Running up to the carriage” … running up to it! Philip embraced this call – this directive to the unknown, to the new, to the different – wholeheartedly and literally at a run.
      • Reminds me of the end of that scene from The Fellowship of the Ring: despite his inability to swim, Sam tries to swim out to Frodo in the boat, but weighed down by his things and his lack of experience, Sam sinks → at the last moment, Frodo reaches down in the water and grasps Sam by the hand, pulling him to safety → Sam reminds Frodo of a promise that he made to Gandalf: “I made a promise, Mr. Frodo – a promise. ‘Don’t you leave him, Samwise Gamgee.’ And I don’t mean to. I don’t mean to.”


        • Wherever the road led
        • Whatever trials and challenges lay ahead
        • Whoever else they were going to encounter along the way
        • Sam had no idea about any of those things – any of what lay in store for them – but he knew that whatever it was, staying with Frodo was where he was meant to be.
    • Philip had no idea what God had in store for him, but he knew it would require him to cultivate intimacy and connection with someone wholly unlike himself. He had no idea what God had in store for him, but he knew that it wasn’t going to be a change encounter – a quick in-and-out gospel blast on his way to somewhere else. At that point – as his arms and legs were pumping, as his feet were pounding the hard and packed dirt of the roadbed – he didn’t even know anything about what awaited him in that carriage. It was only after he approached it that he heard the eunuch reading Scripture and offered his interpretation. But God said to Philip, “Stay with it,” and so he ran, not away from the uncertain, but straight toward it. Amen.

[1] J. R. R. Tolkien. The Fellowship of the Ring. (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin), 1954.

[2] The Fellowship of the Ring, directed by Peter Jackson (New Line Cinema, 2001), DVD (New Line Cinema, 2001).

[3] Jn 1:43-51.

[4] Acts 2:42, 47.

[5] Acts 6:1-7.

[6] Margaret Aymer. “Commentary on Acts 8:26-39” from Working Preacher, Accessed Apr. 25, 2021.

[7] Acts 8:29-31.

[8] Is 53:7b-8a.

[9] Acts 8:35.

[10] Acts 8:39 (CEB).

[11] Acts 8:39 (NRSV).

[12] Acts 8:29-31.

[13] Acts 8:30a.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Mystifies

Text used – Luke 24:1-12

What an Easter morning! We have the early morning. We have the women coming to make the ritual preparations for Jesus’ body. We have the tomb and the stone so startlingly and unmistakably not where it’s supposed to be. We have two messengers garbed in gleamingly bright clothes bearing the strange and unbelievable message: “Why do you look for the living among the dead? He isn’t here, but has been raised.”[i] There it is! Right there! We have the good news: Christ is risen! He is risen indeed!

But what was missing on that first Easter morning? Women? Check. Messengers? Check. Empty tomb? Check. … But where was the risen Savior? When we read Luke’s account of the resurrection, Jesus is nowhere to be seen. This seems to be a bit of a thing with Luke, doesn’t it? Last week, we read the Palm Sunday passage … but Luke’s version was missing the palms. Now this week, we read the Easter passage … but Luke’s version was missing – well – Jesus! Seems like a pretty crucial omission, right? Well, before we talk about why it’s so important that Jesus is absent from Luke’s resurrection story, let’s talk a little bit about what is there.

First, there are the messengers and their full proclamation: “Why do you look for the living among the dead? He isn’t here, but has been raised. Remember what he told you while he was still in Galilee, that the Human One must be handed over to sinners, be crucified, and on the third day rise again.”[ii] This is important because it’s the first in a number of spoken testimonies of the Risen Christ that we get in Luke. Remember that each of the gospels was written with a specific audience and intentionality in mind, and that Luke was particularly written as the gospel for the Gentiles. These were people who didn’t grow up with centuries upon centuries of Jewish texts and traditions that pointed the way to the Messiah – people who didn’t bear the history of oppression and deep-seated desire for freedom that the Jewish people bore. These were people who would have heard about Jesus not in the synagogues or the Temple but through word-of-mouth: on the streets, in the markets, at the town well, and so on. And here in his gospel account of the most miraculous and significant event in the life and ministry of Christ – his resurrection after death – Luke delivers the good news not through long-foretold means or by harkening back to the words of the great prophets of Israel, but by word-of-mouth. In this, Luke evens the playing field. He makes the good news of the Risen Christ the same good news for everyone who hears it. He unifies the body of Christ in both the deliver and the receipt of that message, no matter what their background or current circumstances may be.

The second element that we do find in Luke’s version of the resurrection story is the women. The women, the women, the women! Never ever ever forget, friends, that the first people to preach the gospel were, in fact, women. They had gone to Jesus’ tomb early that morning on the day after the Sabbath to perform the necessary rites and rituals for the dead in the Jewish tradition – prayers, anointings, and paying respects to one that they had so dearly loved. Their presence at the tomb itself is not the surprise in this story. As Rev. Dr. Michal Beth Dinkler of Yale Divinity School puts it, “They have a completely predictable, if gut-wrenching, job to do, one they have likely done many times before. Yet, to their great surprise, the women do ‘not find the body of the Lord Jesus’ (24:3). Jesus is absent. Most of us are desensitized to how utterly shocking this must have been: if anyone should be present in a particular place, it would be a dead body in its tomb. But Jesus’ body is missing.”[iii] But Jesus’ body is missing! Instead, in its place, they find the two gleaming messengers and the good news of the gospel waiting for them: Christ is risen! He is risen indeed!

And I have to say, I don’t think the women get enough credit for what happens next. They are surely bewildered beyond belief by the situation in which they have found themselves, yet they do not run away. They do not clam up for fear of not being believed. Scripture tells us, “When they returned from the tomb, they reported all these things to the eleven and all the others.” Dr. Dinkler speaks to the heart why this element is so crucial. She says, “Jesus’ absence from the tomb creates the opportunity for the women to speak boldly and faithfully on his behalf, and they do. Their proclamation that Jesus is present—he is alive on earth again—is an act of redemptive remembering, in two senses: their remembering is a recalling of Jesus’ earlier teachings, but it is also a remembering insofar as they re-member the body of Christ. They seek to draw together again a community that has been dismembered—torn apart— by fear, confusion, grief, and distress.”[iv] Despite whatever fear, whatever confusion, whatever disbelief, whatever joy, whatever … whatever may have been swirling around in their own hearts and minds, the women told the story anyway. They delivered the good news anyway. They let the gospel message of Christ’s resurrection override anything and everything else going on around them and inside them. They let that light shine!

The final element that’s present in Luke’s gospel resurrection story is doubt. Uncertainty. Disbelief. Even after the women have delivered their compelling testimonies – their very first sermons! – and shared the good news of the Risen Christ, the rest of the disciples don’t believe them. Our text this morning said, “[The women’s] words struck the apostles as nonsense, and they didn’t believe the women. But Peter ran to the tomb. When he bent over to look inside, he saw only the linen cloth. Then he returned home, wondering what had happened.”[v] This is an important element in the telling of Luke’s version because it makes space for the disbelief of others. Imagine being a 1st century person going about your daily business and suddenly hearing that that revolutionary Jew that your neighbor told you the Romans had put to death had suddenly come back to life, and that this happened because God (a god you’ve never believe in, by the way) supposedly loves you. That’s a hard sell! What a crazy message! What an unbelievable message! By including so much detail about the disciples’ own disbelief, Luke holds space for others’ disbelief as well. It’s okay to struggle with accepting this Risen Savior story because even his closest followers and confidantes didn’t believe it right away … but that disbelief doesn’t make it any less real, any less true, any less life-changing.

So why is the lack of an appearance by the Risen Christ so important for us as we read this ancient story today? Because in all likelihood, we will continue to go about being in this world without ever laying eyes on that Risen Christ. Sure, some people have spiritual experiences in which they have visions of Christ appearing to them, but those experiences are the exception rather than the rule. They’re uncommon. And sometimes when things are tough … when things are strained … when the world feels upside-down and injustice feels rampant and we haven’t been able to worship in-person together or take communion in the same space together or hug people outside of our own households for more than a year, we can sometimes feel like the good news of a Risen Christ is far off – like the reality and the unconditional love that burst forth from that empty tomb along with Jesus is hard to grasp, hard to feel, just … plain … hard.

Just like life, our faith journeys are not a steady plateau of feeling connected and joyful and immersed in love all the time. We have mountaintop moments that embody all those things and more, but we also have valley moments – moments when the dazzling brilliance of the mountaintop (or the gleaming brightness of the messengers’ clothes) feels oh, so far away. In those moments, we can feel mystified by the perceived absence of that same Risen Christ. Where did he go? Why isn’t he here with me? How can I find him again? Will he be able to find me again? What will become of me while I wait? Should I stand still or move forward, trusting that we’ll catch up with one another again? While Luke’s gospel doesn’t give us answers this morning, it does give us reassurance that it’s okay to not always have the answers. The women that morning didn’t know where Jesus had gone. Neither did Peter after he’d run to investigate the tomb on his own. But Jesus Christ was still risen. God’s Love still walked out of that tomb and was waiting for the disciples just around the next corner … down the road a piece … ready, willing, and more than able.

Let me leave you with the words of Rev. Dr. David Lose, pastor at Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in Minneapolis. This is what’s called a reverse poem, so when I read it one way, you’ll hear one message, but when I read it the other way, you’ll hear another:


[i] Lk 24:5-6.

[ii] Lk 24:5-7.

[iii] Michal Beth Dinkler. “Commentary on Luke 24:1-12” from Working Preacher, Posted for Apr. 4, 2021, accessed Apr. 4, 2021.

[iv] Ibid.

[v] Lk 24:11-12.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Comes

Text used – Luke 19:29-44

  • I want to tell you about a movie this morning – a movie that, if you haven’t seen it, you need to. It’s a movie called The Way.[1]
    • Written and directed by Emilio Estevez
    • Starring Estevez himself and his father, Martin Sheen
    • Story of a father who make an impromptu decision to walk the Camino de Santiago when his son is unexpectedly killed on his first day on the Camino
      • Camino de Santiago (also known as The Way of St. James)
        • Network of pilgrimages roughly 500 miles long that lead to the shrine of the apostle St. James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain
        • Many starting points and different paths to take → one of the most common starting points: St. Jean Pied de Port on the French side of the Pyrenees Mountains
      • The Way = story of the journey that the father makes
        • Journey he makes with his feet
        • Journey he makes with his heart
        • Journey he makes with a ragtag band of other travelers collected along the way → people he at first can’t seem to shake and, by the end, can’t seem to do without

    • I won’t tell you much more because it truly is the kind of film that you need to see and experience for yourself. But as I was thinking about this week’s text – about all that it entails and about all the lies before us in the week to come – the parallels between our text and this movie kept playing through my mind. Throughout Lent this year, we’ve been talking about some of the roles that Jesus plays in our lives and in our faith.
      • Jesus as one who shows compassion
      • Jesus as one who calls us to repent
      • Jesus as one who finds us
      • Jesus as one who brings justice
      • Jesus as one who lifts us up
      • Today’s role = probably the most important: Jesus who comes
        • Comes to our world
        • Comes to our humanity
        • Comes to our side in brokenness and blessing
        • Comes to our hearts, both when we need him most and when we don’t even know that we need him at all
        • It’s also one of the most interesting roles because it’s an infinite role. Today’s Scripture reading is a finite event, but it encompasses the power of the Christ who came for us, the Christ who comes to the cross for us, the Christ who comes to us in the midst of our faith journeys even this very moment, as well as the Christ who we trust and believe will come again. It’s a passage that makes clear the need for that coming, the promise of that coming, and the price of that coming.
  • Begins with the portion of Scripture that has traditionally been called “The Triumphal Entry” – Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem that ushers us into Holy Week, leads up to his betrayal, his trial, his crucifixion and death, and his resurrection → This is our Palm Sunday text, right? This is the story we read every Palm Sunday. Yes … and no. Interestingly, there are two things missing from Luke’s version of the Triumphal Entry. Let me read a portion of our text again and see if you can catch it. – text: [His disciples] brought [the colt] to Jesus, threw their clothes on the colt, and lifted Jesus onto it. As Jesus rode along, they spread their clothes on the road. As Jesus approached the road leading down from the Mount of Olives, the whole throng of his disciples began rejoicing. They praised God with a loud voice because of all the mighty things they had seen. They said, “Blessings on the king who comes in the name of the Lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest heavens.”[2]
    • Got the colt for Jesus to ride on
    • Got the clothes spread out along the road
    • Got the cheering and praise: “Blessings on the king who comes in the name of the Lord!”
    • But what are we missing? [PAUSE] No palms … and no massive crowd. There are no palm branches waved and spread along the road with the clothes in Luke’s version of this scene. And while there is shouting and praise and a large group of people, it’s not a huge group of strangers shouting their “Hosannas!” but “the whole throng of [Jesus’] disciples.” → makes Lk’s Triumphal entry simultaneously more intimate and more eerie
      • Remember that “disciple” essentially means follower – Gr. = learner, adherent, general word used for “Christian” later on in the NT after the early church has been established in Acts
        • Far more general term than the specific disciples – the original 12 who formed Jesus’ inner circle
        • By this time in Jesus’ ministry, those who were following him were certainly large in number → Lk tells us plenty of times at the end of a healing or teaching story that the one who encountered Jesus in that story chose to follow Jesus after that encounter → sometimes even convinced their families or friends or villages to follow, too → So while there’s no way to know how big that crowd was, we can still guess by the way Luke describes them that they’ve all had some sort of positive interaction with Jesus prior to this particular parade into Jerusalem. That’s what makes Luke’s version of this story more intimate. It’s not a crowd of strangers and looky-loos craning their necks for a first glimpse of this Messiah character that they’ve heard about. It’s a group of people who have followed Jesus, listened to Jesus, had their lives and their souls and their hearts and even some of their bodies touched by Jesus. It’s people who are with Jesus and the Twelve because they believe … or at least because they want to believe.
      • Despite this devotion and fervor, we still must hold the joyous “Hosannas!” and cried of “Blessing!” that we hear in our text today with the blatant denials and vicious cries of “Crucify him!” that will echo throughout Good Friday in just a few days time à the intimacy of Lk’s crowd is exactly what makes those Good Friday cries all the more eerie, all the more heartbreaking
  • But in truth, while today’s text is a journey in and of itself – a short journey but a significant journey into the city limits of Jerusalem itself – we know well that it’s a journey that started long before Luke 19:29.
    • Begins back in Lk 9
      • Jesus tries not once but twice to explain to the disciples what is to come about his betrayal and torture, his death and resurrection[3]
      • Jesus sets out on his final journey toward Jerusalem – text: As the time approached when Jesus was to be taken up into heaven, he determined to go to Jerusalem.[4]
    • Begins back in Lk 3, 4, & 5 → beginning of Jesus’ ministry
      • Baptism by John – Lk 3[5]
      • 40 days of temptation in the wilderness with Satan – Lk 4[6]
      • Calling the disciples – Lk 5[7]
    • Begins back in Lk 2 → Jesus’ birth in that stable surrounded by animals and shepherds, angels and Mary and Joseph, God’s love and glory[8]
    • Begins back in OT
      • Prophets who spoke of the One who would come to save the people – Isaiah and Jeremiah, Micah and Zephaniah, even some of the psalmists
      • Covenants that God made with the people – promises of love and protection and relentless belonging → covenants with Abraham and Isaac, with Jacob and with Moses
      • God who created humanity in God’s own image – poured all of God’s love and creativity and hope and boundless possibility into the tenderness and fragility of humanity only to have humanity turn away from God in disobedience and selfish desire
    • The story of Jesus’ journey on Palm Sunday … the story of Jesus’ intimate, excruciating, heart-rending journey through Holy Week … the story of Jesus’ journey both into and out of that tomb … these are not single events in a linear journey. They’re not plot points on a map that we can simply follow from point A to point B to point C and so on. They’re part of a wider, grander, more cyclical journey that began ages ago and that begins again every single morning.
      • Begins again when we open our eyes each and every morning and choose once more to follow Christ
      • Begins again when we actively try to embody Christ’s spirit of justice and compassion, hope and forgiveness, grace and peace in the world around us
      • Begins again when we worship and when we pray – when we bring ourselves before God, when we make coming to God a part of our own journeys
      • Get subtle hints at this ever-new beginning – ever-renewed journey – in our text this morning → many of them so subtle, they’re easy to miss
        • 1st = so subtle we don’t even see it in the English[9] → You see, there’s actually a very interesting Greek word that’s found in the very first line of our Scripture reading this morning – in verse 29 – that doesn’t even get translated into the English version of the text. It’s not an uncommon Greek word. On the contrary, it’s one of the most common words we find in the New Testament. It’s the word that most often gets translated as “happen” or “become” or “come into being.” It carries an essence of transformation – of moving from one state or condition to another – as well as an essence of intentionality – of coming into being with a specific sense of movement and growth. It’s a word steeped in purpose and scope, and in our passage this morning (at least, in the Greek version), this word is used in relation to Jesus’ journey. This journey that Jesus is making into Jerusalem, this journey that is starting out in Bethphage and Bethany on the Mount of Olives, is a journey that will change things. A journey that is intended to change things.
        • 2nd – see it in Jesus’ entanglement with the Pharisees – text: Some of the Pharisees from the crowd said to Jesus, “Teacher, scold your disciples! Tell them to stop!” He answered, “I tell you, if they were silent, the stones would shout.”[10] → This is one of my favorite passages in all of Scripture because of one small but significant nuance in the Greek. My first exegesis class in seminary was on Luke with one of the most brilliant Greek scholars to date – Rev. Dr. David Moessner – and in that class, when we got to this passage, I remember being totally blown away by what Dr. Moessner pointed out to us.
          • Jesus’ response to the Pharisees: “I tell you, if [my disciples] were silent, the stones would shout.” – Gr. “if” = nebulous little word that can also mean “when” → So in this seemingly-simple statement, Jesus is encompassing all that is to come both in the immediate future and as far out into the future as our very here and now – the betrayal, the denial, the way his followers would turn away from him … even turn on him, the desertion, the brokenness, the echoing silence once the cries of “Hosanna!” had died away and were replaced with nothing but closed mouths and a sealed tomb. Jesus knew all of that was coming, so in this moment, instead of condemning either his followers or the Pharisees, he stretches out the undeniable glory of God like a blanket that covers all of creation, promising that “Even when all are silent, the stones themselves will cry out God’s goodness and praise.”
        • 3rd and final hint at continuous nature of this journey = found in final portion of text – Jesus weeping over Jerusalem
          • Weeps for all that has been lost
          • Weeps for all that is to come
          • Text: As Jesus came to the city and observed it, he wept over it. He said, “… The time will come when your enemies will build fortification around you, encircle you, attack you from all sides. They will crush you completely, you and the people within you. They won’t leave one stone on top of another within you, because you didn’t recognize the time of your gracious visit from God.”[11] → key elements here are Jesus’ two different references to time
            • 1st reference = “The time will come when your enemies will build fortifications around you” – Gr. “time” = period of time, a little indeterminate as far as the length/amount of time but often translated as day, a finite event
              • Implies that the darkness that is to come will not be perpetual darkness but a moment, a time that with a definite beginning and end
            • 2nd reference = “You didn’t recognize the time of your gracious visit from God” – Gr. “time” = much more open, infinite, spiritual reference to time → This is time that comes back around. It’s seasonal. It’s cyclical. It will continue to come back around again and again, presenting ever-renewed opportunities for either growth or decay, either hope or despair, either acceptance or rejection.
  • Friends, our Scripture reading this morning is a story about a Messiah who comes – who comes into Jerusalem, who comes into God’s Grand Story of grace and faith, who comes into our hearts and lives, not once but every moment of every day. And so we raise our own “Hosannas!” for the Jesus who has come, who continues to come, and who will come again. Amen.

[1] The Way, directed by Emilio Estevez (Filmax Entertainment, 2010), digital format (Icon Entertainment International, 2010).

[2] Lk 19:35-38.

[3] Lk 9:21-22; 43-45.

[4] Lk 9:51.

[5] Lk 3:21-22.

[6] Lk 4:1-13.

[7] Lk 5:1-11.

[8] Lk 2:1-20.

[9] Exegesis by Rev. Elana Keppel Levy:

[10] Lk 19:39-40.

[11] Lk 19:41, 43-44.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Lifts Us Up

Text used – Luke 18:31-19:10

  • I was listening to Minnesota Public Radio this week, and Kerri Miller was having a discussion with Christian author Anne Lamott.
    • (If you’re not familiar with Lamott): born- again Christian, recovering addict (35 yrs. sober), prolific writer → 19 books (a few fiction, most non-fiction) – some of the most recognizable:
      • Help, Thanks, Wow: The Three Essential Prayers[1]
      • Traveling Mercies: Some Thoughts on Faith[2]
      • Hallelujah Anyway: Rediscovering Mercy[3]
    • Lamott’s conversation with Kerri Miller[4] was inspired by her newest book – Dusk, Night, Dawn: On Revival and Courage[5] – and was a discussion that revolved around redemption and forgiveness and courage when it’s hard. It truly was a beautiful and fascinating discussion. If you’re interested, I’d encourage you to visit the MPR website archives and listen to it. It’s Kerri Miller’s program from Tues., Mar. 16.
    • Part of the discussion toward the end of the hour was about grace – Lamott’s description of grace was both so amusing and so captivating that I’ve been thinking about it all week long → She said grace was like spiritual WD-40 – the grease that gets our stuck places unstuck, that loosens the knotted-up parts of our relationships, our souls, our very selves.
      • Scripture this morning is full of knotted-up people in need of the grace of God to lift them up → 3 different, distinct sections
        • Jesus trying to talk to the disciples about what is coming
        • Jesus’ encounter with the blind man
        • Jesus’ encounter with Zacchaeus, the tax collector
  • First encounter = disciples all knotted-up, stuck in their inability to understand – text = Jesus trying to explain to the disciples what is coming (namely: arrest, torture, death, resurrection)
    • 3rd and final time Jesus tries to clue the disciples in on what is coming
      • Other two times occur in ch. 9[6]
      • None of these times are Jesus being subtle → Jesus, who we all know can be a little vague and enigmatic sometimes (some of those parables can be a little rough!), is very clear and direct in this discussion with the disciples. – Gr. = abundantly clear in lots of ways[7]
        • Right off the bat, Jesus draws attention to the importance of what he’s saying – “Look!” = idou → This is that little Greek word that gets used as an attention getter. When it’s uttered, the hearer (or reader) is supposed to pay special attention to what comes after because it’s important. Really important. Really, really And what follows Jesus’ utterance of this word? “Look … [PAUSE] … we’re going up to Jerusalem, and everything written about the Human One by the prophets will be accomplished.”
        • BUT, just in case that direct statement wasn’t clear enough, Jesus spells it out even more explicitly for them: “He will be handed over to the Gentiles. He will be ridiculed, mistreated, and spit on. After torturing him, they will kill him. On the third day, he will rise up.” → Gr. in this passage is loaded
          • Gr. “handed over” has implications of personal involvement, not just some nameless, faceless Roman official coming to get him → Jesus is hinting that someone – someone close to them, close to him – will be involved in his betrayal.
          • Gr. “mistreated” includes layer of meaning that involves harming someone to the point of loss (particularly reputation/honor) with clear implications of violence and abuse
          • Gr. “tortured” comes from word for the device used to flog prisoners and criminals – a whip with leather strips that had bits of metal imbedded in them to inflict maximum pain and damage
          • And of course, Jesus finishes this description with something that’s clear in any language. – text: “They will kill him.” → Period.
    • Now, I don’t think we can blame the disciples for not cottoning onto that last bit – “On the third day, he will rise up” – because the implications of that are mind-blowing. But with the rest of it, Jesus is clear! And yet … text: But the Twelve understood none of these words. The meaning of the message was hidden from them and they didn’t grasp what he was saying.
      • Gr. makes it clear that the disciples were lost when it came to putting everything together → They just couldn’t make what Jesus was saying to them make sense. They couldn’t fathom it. They were stuck – knotted-up in their own unawareness and naiveté, in need of God’s grace to loosen the ignorance that kept them bound so they could be lifted up in knowledge and understanding.
  • 2nd encounter and 3rd encounter sort of mirror opposites of each other
    • Both involve individuals previously unknown to Jesus who were stuck in difficult situations
    • Both require Jesus’ attention and God’s grace to release them and lift them up out of those difficult situations
    • But those involved in these other two encounters go about things in very different ways.
      • Quick story review
        • 2nd encounter: Jesus coming into Jericho on his way to Jerusalem → blind man begging by the side of the road hears a commotion → asks the crowd what’s happening → finds out Jesus is passing through and cries out to Jesus for help → crowd attempts to shush the blind man but he cries out again: “Jesus, Son of David, show me mercy!”[8] → Jesus stops and asks the man what he wants Jesus to do for him → man says, “Lord, I want to see.”[9] → Jesus declares that man’s faith has healed him → man’s sight is restored → begins to follow Jesus
        • 3rd encounter: Jesus on his way out of Jericho on his way to Jerusalem → enter Zacchaeus, a rich tax collector (text: “a ruler among tax collectors”[10]) → heard Jesus was coming but couldn’t see over the crowd → runs ahead and climbs up a sycamore tree to see Jesus better → Jesus passes by the tree and looks up to see Zacchaeus perched there → Jesus addresses Zacchaeus: “Zacchaeus, come down at once. I must stay at your home today.”[11] → thrilled, Zacchaeus climbs down → crowd grumbles because Zacchaeus is a tax collector (“Who does Jesus think he is, associating with that kind?”) → Zacchaeus has a revelation/conversion moment right there on the road and pledges to not only give away half his possession to the poor but also repay anyone he’s cheated fourfold → Jesus declares that today, salvation belongs to Zacchaeus, too
    • As I said, these two encounters provide a really interesting mirror of each other, so let’s dig a little deeper into the differences and similarities here.
      • Encounters bookend Jesus’ short time in Jericho → Nothing in the text tells us that Jesus spent any great amount of time in Jericho. As far as we can tell, he’s literally passing through the town. Yet as he both enters the town (2nd encounter) and leaves the town (3rd encounter), Jesus has these formative interactions with two different people, leaving both of their lives profoundly changed.
        • Grace on the fly → sometimes the experience of grace takes a lot of time and effort to fully acknowledge and understand BUT sometimes it comes upon us and lifts us up when we’re least expecting it
      • 2nd encounter = blind man sitting by the side of the road begging, relying on the charity of others for his very survival – a man with nothing → 3rd encounter = Zacchaeus, chief tax collector (read: Jew acting as Roman stooge) which makes him incredibly rich
      • 2nd encounter = blind man sitting in the dirt on the road – about as far down as you can get (socially and physically) → 3rd encounter = Zacchaeus up in the tree, climbing higher (literally and figuratively – “up” in his surroundings and “up” in social structure)
        • Reminds us again (and again and again and again) that God’s grace is grace for all
          • All backgrounds
          • All types
          • All circumstances
          • All situations
          • God’s grace is able to find us wherever we are. No matter what.
      • Then we come to a similarity: 2nd encounter = man cannot see → 3rd encounter = man cannot see
        • Both the blind man and Zacchaeus need help to experience what’s going on around them
          • Blind man has to rely on others (has to ask the crowd what’s happening)
          • Zacchaeus relies on himself (climbing a tree to gain sight)
          • Either way, both of the men in these encounters cannot fully comprehend what’s happening around them on their own. They need help.
      • 2nd encounter = blind man cries out to Jesus, not once but twice – intentionally engages, seeking out Jesus’ attention and assistance → 3rd encounter = Zacchaeus passively observing in the tree – Jesus has to seek him out (Jesus sees Zacchaeus, Jesus addresses Zacchaeus, Jesus even invites himself to Zacchaeus’ house)
        • Reminds us that there are many different ways to approach Jesus → Sometimes we recognize our own stuck situations, our own knotted-up souls, our own need for grace. And we cry out to God! But sometimes, we are so entangled in what’s happening that we don’t even see our own need. Either way, Jesus finds us in our need.
      • Another similarity: 2nd encounter = crowd grumbles about the blind man associating with Jesus → 3rd encounter = crowd grumbles about Zacchaeus associating with Jesus
        • Text: When the man heard the crowd passing by, he asked what was happening. They told him, “Jesus the Nazarene is passing by.” The blind man shouted, “Jesus, Son of David, show me mercy.” Those leading the procession scolded him, telling him to be quiet, but he shouted even louder, “Son of David, show me mercy.”[12]
        • Text: When Jesus came to that spot, he looked up and said, “Zacchaeus, come down at once. I must stay in your home today.” So Zacchaeus came down at once, happy to welcome Jesus. Everyone who saw this grumbled, saying, “He has gone to be the guest of a sinner.”[13]
        • Interesting: one of those grumbles is directed at the man himself (2nd encounter) while the other is actually directed at Jesus (3rd encounter) → But in neither case does the judgment and prejudice of the crowd deter Jesus’ offer of grace. It is not the world around us that deems us worthy of grace. It is Jesus and Jesus alone.
      • Final fascinating connection pt. btwn these 2 stories = both similarity and difference: 2nd encounter = man’s life is changed … but by his own faith → 3rd encounter = man’s life is changed … but by Jesus’ faith in him
        • In both encounters, Jesus leaves the man he interacts with profoundly changed. The blind man comes away from his meeting with Jesus with his sight restored. Profoundly changed. Zacchaeus, after being in Jesus’ presence for only a few moments, pledges to not only give away half his possession but to make extravagant restitution with anyone he’s cheated in the past. Profoundly changed. Both men walk away from their encounters with Jesus into a life wholly and undeniably different than the life they were living only hours before. In the second encounter, the blind man had faith enough in Christ to call out to him, to beg him for healing, to believe wholeheartedly that Jesus had the ability to grant that healing. And he did. But for Zacchaeus, Jesus had to see that faith within him before Zacchaeus was even aware of it himself. And he did.
          • Last line of our Scripture this morning: The Human One came to seek and save the lost.[14]
            • Reminder that there are many states of lostness
            • Reminder that there are many states of seeking
            • Reminder that Jesus is there in the midst of all of it, offering God’s grace to lift us up whenever we are ready to accept it
              • No matter who.
              • No matter what.
              • No matter where.
              • No matter how.
              • Saving is saving, no matter the circumstances of our encounter with Christ. Jesus lifts us up. Thanks be to God. Amen.

[1] Anne Lamott. Help, Thanks, Wow: The Three Essential Prayer. (New York, NY: Riverhead Books), 2012.

[2] Anne Lamott. Traveling Mercies: Some Thoughts on Faith. (New York, NY: Pantheon Books), 1999.

[3] Anne Lamott. Hallelujah Anyway: Rediscovering Mercy. (New York, NY: Riverhead Books), 2017.


[5] Anne Lamott. Dusk, Night, Dawn: On Revival and Courage. (New York, NY: Riverhead Books), 2021.

[6] Lk 9:21-22, 43-45.

[7] Exegesis by Rev. Elana Keppel Levy:

[8] Lk 18:38.

[9] Lk 18:41.

[10] Lk 19:2.

[11] Lk 19:5.

[12] Lk 18:36-39 (emphasis added).

[13] Lk 19:5-7 (emphasis added).

[14] Lk 19:10.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Brings Justice

Text used – Luke 16:19-31

  • The year was 1963, and he was in prison. Again. Not for the first time. Not for the second time. For the 13th Heck, this time they even had him in solitary confinement.[1] While in jail, he read an open letter in The Birmingham News signed by all the local white clergy – Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal, Catholic, Presbyterian, and even the local Jewish rabbi. It was a letter calling for unity … of sorts. It was a letter calling for patience … of sorts. It was a letter that backhandedly blamed the recent peaceful protestors for the exceedingly violent response against them while simultaneously commending those perpetuating that violence for “the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled.”[2] And after reading it, Martin Luther King, Jr. began to work on his response.
    • Result = “Letter from Birmingham Jail” or “Letter from Birmingham City Jail”
    • Result = 7000 words, 21 double-spaced typed pages
    • Result = finished before he was released from that Birmingham jail just over a week later BUT not published and distributed until June 1963
    • Result that included what has probably become one of King’s most repeated quotes: “Injustice anywhere is a thread to justice everywhere.”[3]
    • Result was some unapologetically direct calling out of the established, white congregations (that had just called King himself and the entire Civil Rights movement out in the previous open letter): In that dramatic scene on Calvary’s hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime – the crime of extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action. … Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo. Far from being disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average community is consoled by the church’s silent–and often even vocal–sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today’s church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned into outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the world.[4] → “Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and our world?” I don’t know about you, but that sounds a lot like the question Jesus is asking in our gospel reading this morning.
  • Today’s parable = Lazarus and the rich man → probably one of my favorite parables (though that could be because I can’t read it without seeing the Godspell interpretation playing in my mind! … and yes, I watched it while I was working on this!)
    • Parable told, once again, in response to the Pharisees – verses leading up to our reading this morning: The Pharisees, who were money-lovers, heard all this and sneered at Jesus. He said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves before other people, but God knows your hearts. What is highly valued by people is deeply offensive to God. Until John, there was only the Law and the Prophets. Since then, the good news of God’s kingdom is preached, and everyone is urged to enter it. It’s easier for heaven and earth to pass away than for the smallest stroke of a pen in the law to drop out.”[5] → Jesus is making it clear to the Pharisees that they’re so worried about following every single letter of the Law that they’re missing the intention behind the Law. They’re so busy hunching over the scrolls and staring fixedly at what’s written there that they’ve neglected to look around them – to see the need around them, to see the injustice around them. And so Jesus tells them this parable.
      • Basics:
        • Unnamed rich man “who clothed himself in purple and fine linen, and who feasted luxuriously every day”[6]
          • Gr. here is really interesting
            • Phrase “feasted luxuriously” = literally “rejoiced through daily splendor/sumptuousness”
            • Word “rejoiced” = root of a word we use today: euphoria: a state of intense happiness and self-confidence
            • So clearly the rich man in Jesus’ story is living it up. He’s living the high life, not just eating well every day but boisterously feasting, living sumptuously, living the life of a high roller!
        • Flip side: poor man named Lazarus who lays at the gate to the rich man’s house covered in sores – text: Lazarus longed to eat the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table.[7]
        • Both men die → Lazarus is taken up to heaven to be with Abraham while the rich man is sent to be tormented in “the place of the dead” (Gr. = Hades) → rich man looks up to see Lazarus living well and comfortably in eternity and calls out to Abraham for mercy → Abraham reminds rich man that he had everything good in his previous life while Lazarus had nothing and now the roles are reversed → rich man, thinking of his family members still living, begs Abraham to send Lazarus to go warn his family of the fate that awaits them if they don’t change their ways → Abraham reminds rich man that his family has Scripture (Moses and the prophets) to guide their actions à rich man insists that seeing someone come back from the dead (a lá Jacob Marley in Charles Dickens’ Christmas Carol[8]!) will straighten out his living family members → Abraham’s final word: “If they don’t listen to Moses and the Prophets, then neither will they be persuaded if someone rises from the dead.”[9]
          • “If they don’t listen to Moses and the Prophets” … “Moses and the Prophets” was the Law. This was the sacred writings that the Pharisees spent their days and their entire lives studying. Jesus is very clearly saying to them, “If you don’t listen to the intent of the Law, then nothing will persuade them.”
    • Really interesting context – today’s parable of injustice = sandwiched in between Jesus’ teaching on faithfulness with money[10] and Jesus’ teaching on faithful service[11] → In between talking about how to use one’s financial blessings to help further and care for God’s kingdom and how to use one’s actions to help further and care for God’s kingdom, Jesus tells this parable about a man who turned a blind eye to injustice.
      • Important to note: unnamed rich man in this parable never actually does anything overtly unjust to Lazarus (not that we know of, anyway) → No, the rich man’s injustice is an injustice of omission. He turns a blind eye to the need of his fellow human being, to the point where the man’s dogs eat well from the scraps of his table (because they are there within in sight) while Lazarus lays out at the man’s gate, starving and in desperate need. Despite the way this passage has been used (dare I say manipulated?) in the past, it’s clear from the context and the content of the parable itself that this isn’t a parable told to mollify those who are poor that there will be rewards for them later. This isn’t a “bide your time, you who suffer” parable. This is not a “Call to Unity” open letter parable. This is a parable to call out inactivity in the face of injustice. This is a parable from Jesus, the one who brings justice to those to whom justice has long been denied. This is an “injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere” parable.
  • And so we get to the crux of this parable: Where are the unseen injustices around us? Even more pointed, what are the injustices we willingly don’t see? How is Jesus challenging us to open our eyes and our hearts and look around? Because it is imperative that we be honest here, friends. There are unseen injustices all around us.
    • Dr. Mitzi Smith, prof of NT at Columbia Theological Seminary (Georgia): The huge housing, health care, educational, wage, and employment disparities we create and support based on class, gender, culture, race, ethnicity, sexual preference, and so on must be closed in our lifetime. This repair requires truth-telling, introspection, risk, and strategic intentional change by individuals, nations, governments, and businesses.[12] → So let’s do some truth-telling this morning.
    • UNSEEN INJUSTICE: wage gap, especially as it pertains to women and BIPOC à for every $1.00 that white men earn:[13]
      • White women: $.79
      • Black women: $.62
      • Hispanic or Latina women: $.54
      • Asian women: $.90
      • American Indian or Native Alaskan women: $.57
    • UNSEEN INJUSTICE: massive chasm between minimum wage and the cost of living across the country[14]
      • Minimum wage = $7.25 (nationwide)
      • Living wage for a single adult = $14.50 à difference: $7.25
      • Living wage for a single parent with one child = $26.48 à difference: $19.23
      • Living wage for a two-adult home with two children = $27.45 à difference: $20.20
    • UNSEEN INJUSTICE: the Super Bowl (just a couple of months ago) → Texas Attorney General announced in 2011 that this massive, yearly, multimillion dollar sporting event – by far the biggest sporting event in America every year– is also the single largest human trafficking event in America every year[15]
      • Just an e.g. – 10,000 girls and young women were trafficked in Miami during Super Bowl 44 in 2010
    • UNSEEN INJUSTICE: vast differences in experiences with the justice system for white people verses BIPOC[16]
      • Just an e.g. – for the lowest level offenses, Black and American Indian youth are confined at rates over 3 times the rate of white youth
    • Friends, there are injustices all around us. We cannot deny it. As Presbyterians, when we join a church or are ordained to a position in a congregation – ruling elder or deacon or Minister of Word and Sacrament – we vow that we will uphold and live by the tenets of Scripture and by the tenets expressed in the confessions – those creeds and witnesses of the faithful who have gone before us. à words of 3 of those confessions:
      • Confession of 1967: Life is a gift to be received with gratitude and a task to be pursued with courage. Man is free to seek his life within the purpose of God: to develop and protect the resources of nature for the common welfare, to work for justice and peace in society, and in other ways to use his creative powers for the fulfillment of human life.[17]
      • Confession of Belhar: We believe that the credible of [God’s gospel message of grace] is seriously affected and its beneficial work obstructed when it is proclaimed in a land which professes to be Christian, but in which the enforced separation of people on a racial basis promotes and perpetuates alienation, hatred, and enmity.[18]
      • Brief Statement of Faith: In a broken and fearful world the Spirit gives us courage to pray without ceasing, to witness among all peoples to Christ as Lord and Savior, to unmask idolatries in Church and culture, to hear the voices of peoples long silenced, and to work with others for justice, freedom, and peace.[19]
    • “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” So I ask again, friends: What are the injustices we willingly don’t see? Amen.

[1] Barbara Maranzani. “Behind Martin Luther King’s Searing ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail” from History, Posted Apr. 16, 2013, updated Aug. 31, 2018, accessed Mar. 14, 2021.


[3] James M. Washington (ed.), “Letter from a Birmingham City Jail” in A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr. (San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row Publishers, 1986), 290.

[4] Ibid, 298, 300.

[5] Lk 16:14-17.

[6] Lk 16:19.

[7] Lk 16:21a.

[8] Charles Dickens. A Christmas Carol. (London, England: Chapman and Hall), 1843.

[9] Lk 16:31.

[10] Lk 16:1-13.

[11] Lk 17:1-10.

[12] Mitzi J. Smith. “Commentary on Luke 16:19-31” from Working Preacher, Accessed Mar. 14, 2021.



[15] Michelle Lillie. “Largest Human Trafficking Incident in America” from Human Trafficking Search, Posted Jan. 20, 2014, accessed Mar. 14, 2021.

[16] Wendy Sawyer. “Visualizing the racial disparities in mass incarceration” from Prison Policy Initiative, Posted July 27, 2020, accessed Mar. 14, 2021.

[17] “The Confession of 1967” in Book of Confessions: Study Edition, revised [Part 1 of the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church (USA)]. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2017), 9.17.

[18] “The Confession of Belhar” in Book of Confessions: Study Edition, revised [Part 1 of the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church (USA)]. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2017), 10.5.

[19] “A Brief Statement of Faith” in Book of Confessions: Study Edition, revised [Part 1 of the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church (USA)]. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2017), 11.4, lines 65-71.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Finds Us

Text used – Luke 15:1-10

  • We like the phrase “pull yourself up by your bootstraps” in America, don’t we? It’s supposed to exemplify hard work, perseverance, determination, ingenuity. The American dream, right? Today, we use this colloquialism dually as both inspiration and praise for people trying to make a way for themselves. Here’s the problem: everything about the phrase “pull yourself up by your bootstraps” is a myth.
    • Origin of the phrase = physics example from a late-1800s science textbook: “Why can not a man lift himself by pulling up on his bootstraps?” → originally meant as a sarcastic remark, implying that whatever you were undertaking was doomed to fail – was impossible[1]
    • And yet somehow, throughout the decades, it came to mean the opposite – that, if one works hard enough, he or she can attain wealth, security, success, prosperity. It came to mean, “You can do anything, if only you work hard enough for it.” It’s supposed to be the antithesis of entitlement and privilege. → the problem = not actually possible in our social and economic reality in America today[2]
      • Research done by a wide variety of reputable institutions throughout the last decade or so (Brookings Institute and the Pew Charitable Trusts, just to name a few) has revealed that race, gender, education level, even geography play a much larger part in socioeconomic status and mobility than pure determination does
        • From 2012 Pew research: economic mobility is largely an accident of birth
          • 66% of people born in the lowest two income levels remain there as adults and exactly 66% of people born at the highest two income levels stay there as adults, a phenomenon called “stickiness at the ends.”
          • Even more importantly, research reveals that clinging to this bootstrap myth is actually detrimental to society because it causes people to believe that those living in poverty are doing so not because they’re trapped there because of circumstances and barriers but because they’re not working hard enough, they’re “lazy and stupid”
            • Creates an unnecessary and harmful societal “us/them” dichotomy → allows us to offhandedly dismiss those who need help
    • What’s become clear in the results of all these studies is that, contrary to the “lone wolf” ideal perpetuated by the bootstraps myth, we all need some help – that going it alone isn’t really all its cracked up to be.
      • Research: element that actually helps people move out of the cycle of poverty = help from others[3]
        • Government assistance programs
        • Equal access to early childhood education
        • College access and assistance
        • Programs that reduce economic segregation in cities
        • Eliminating things like food deserts and underprivileged school districts
    • Our Scripture this morning = the antithesis of the bootstraps myth à two short parables Jesus tells of being found … of being found
  • Passage begins with a little setting – text: All the tax collectors and sinners were gathering around Jesus to listen to him. The Pharisees and legal experts were grumbling, saying, “This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.”[4] → Surprise, surprise, y’all … the Pharisees and legal experts are upset! Jesus is doing something he’s not supposed to do. Jesus is hanging out with the wrong people, and I mean the really wrong people. Sure, sometimes Jesus hangs out with unclean people like lepers and those with other diseases – those who are unclean because of their afflictions. But this? Jesus hanging out with tax collectors and sinners – those who have willfully chosen their paths of unrighteousness? And it’s not even that he’s just allowing them to walk with him or something passive like that. Jesus is actually welcoming them, breaking bread with them. I mean, come on. How dare he? Grumble grumble grumble. Grumble grumble grumble.
    • Gr. in this section of text makes it abundantly clear that the Pharisees and legal experts weren’t trying to hide their disapproval – word for “grumble” carries inescapable nuance of being uttered out loud, being understandable → This isn’t just barely audible, unintelligible mumbling and muttering. This is an intentional statement that the Pharisees and legal experts wanted Jesus to hear. Essentially, it’s a challenge.
      • Also clearly a judgment on those gathering around Jesus – if Jesus could hear the comment, all of those tax collectors and sinners could certainly hear it, too → make no mistake: meant to remind that unrighteous riff raff of their place
        • Scholar: Their grumbles are as old as religious itself. If you were really one of us, you would remember our traditions, laws, and norms! We separate ourselves from sinners for our own protection! We never have done it that way before! Their chorus is one that sees Jesus’ hospitality to sinners as dangerous, irreverent, and unpleasant.[5]
  • As is his custom, Jesus responds not with a direct rebuke or definitive statement but with parables → parables about lost things
    • Starts with the parable of the lost sheep: shepherd has 100 sheep and discovers that one is lost → leaves the other 99 sheep to go searching for the one that is lost → upon finding the lost sheep, shepherd rejoices → gathers his friends to celebrate
      • A couple of things we need to notice about this parable
        • Doesn’t say anything about how the sheep got lost
          • No judgment
          • No speculation
          • Nothing to deride the sheep for its lostness à not a commentary on the sheep’s character or lineage or personal worth
          • The sheep is simply lost. Because everything gets lost sometimes. Everyone gets lost sometimes. Unlike the Pharisees’ overly-loud and judgmental grumbling about the lost ones surrounding Jesus, Jesus himself makes no comment about the moral or spiritual implications of being lost. He simply states it as a reality and moves on with the story because, as we learn, the lostness isn’t the true point.
        • Also need to notice that severity of “lostness” gets … well … lost when we translate from Gr. to Eng. → We know that there are varying levels of “lostness” in our own language. A lost phone number, for example, carries innumerably less weight and worry than a lost pet or family member. And anyone who’s spent more than 2 minutes searching for their keys when they’re trying to get out the door in the morning knows that lostness can inspire a whole host of emotions and frustrations in a shockingly short amount of time. However, in English, the word “lost” is a fairly tame word. In and of itself, it doesn’t strike fear and despair into the hearts of those who hear it.
          • Gr. in this passage = significantly stronger – “lost” can also be destroyed, ruined, even killed → Jesus is making it clear just how perilous it can be to be lost. Lostness is nothing to scoff at, nothing to take for granted. Lostness is a serious thing.
      • Severity of the state of lostness leads the shepherd to boisterous rejoicing when he finds the sheep → not just rejoicing himself but rejoicing that spills over to those around him – text: When he arrives home, he calls together his friends and neighbors, saying to them, ‘Celebrate with me because I’ve found my lost sheep.’[6]
    • 2nd parable – lost coin – is very similar: woman has 10 silver coins → discovers she’s lost one coin → basically turns her house upside-down (“lights a lamp and sweeps the house, searching her home carefully”[7]) until she finds her missing coin → rejoices when she finds the lost coin → gathers her friends to celebrate
      • We’ve all been there, right? We’ve felt that stomach-sinking feeling of having lost something of monetary value.
        • Story of losing Caribou gift card from Mom one Christmas when Ian and Luke were little → It’s truly gut-wrenching when you lose something like that, and the longer and more thoroughly you search, the further your stomach drops, right? We may not all be able to relate to Jesus’ tale of the shepherd losing the sheep, but the experience of losing a coin (or, by today’s standards, a paycheck or a credit card or a gift card) is pretty universal.
          • Know the franticness of searching
          • Know the worst-case scenarios that run through our heads while we’re searching
          • Know (hopefully!) the relief and joy that floods through our whole systems upon finding what you’ve lost OR, on the flip side, the frustration and distress we feel if it’s not found
          • This helps us to relate not just with the lost one but the finding one in Jesus’ stories as well. Make no mistake, Jesus makes it clear that we are the ones lost and God is the one doing the finding, but by using these examples that are so easily applicable to everyday life, Jesus gives us a glimpse into the heart of God.
            • Affirms that celebration and relief with what he says after telling each parable
              • Sheep: In the same way, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who changes both heart and life than over ninety-nine righteous people who have no need to change their hearts and lives.[8]
              • Coin: In the same way, I tell you, joy breaks out in the presence of God’s angels over one sinner who changes both heart and life.[9]
              • Joy breaks out! Joy breaks out over one who is found – who is rescued from a state of lostness and brought back to the One who has spent so much love and life searching.
                • Goes along with what we talked about last week – Jesus as the one who calls us to repent → Gr. “changes both heart and life” (exact phrase from both parables) = one simple word: REPENT
    • Scholar: There is no more humbling or common human experience that feeling and being lost. By the reckoning of these parables, the most joyfully divine experience is finding and being found. No matter how lost the people should become and by whatever means they lose their way, the promise is never exhausted: the lamp is burning. The shepherd is searching. God is watching and believing that the lost shall be found until the journey home is completely by every misplaced soul.[10] Amen.

[1] Jess Zafarris. “The Origins of the Phrase ‘Pull Yourself Up by Your Bootstraps” from Useless Etymology blog, Accessed Mar. 7, 2021.

[2] Dave Roos. “The Bootstrap Myth: Climbing the Economic Ladder Takes More Than Hard Work” from HowStuffWorks, Accessed Mar. 7, 2021.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Lk 15:1-2.

[5] Christopher H. Edmonston. “Luke 15:1-10 – Homiletical Perspective’ in Feasting on the Gospels – Luke, vol. 2. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 83.

[6] Lk 15:6.

[7] Lk 15:8.

[8] Lk 15:7.

[9] Lk 15:10.

[10] Edmonston, 85.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Calls Us to Repent

Images from “Topography of Tears” by Rose-Lynn Fisher

Text used – Luke 13:1-9, 31-35

  • I want to share some images with you this morning. They’re from an exhibit and the resulting book by photographer Rose-Lynn Fisher. Both the exhibit and the book are called “The Topography of Tears.”[1]
    • Description from Amazon: “Does a tear shed while chopping onions look different from a tear of happiness? In this powerful collection of images, an award-winning photographer trains her optical microscope and camera on her own tears and those of men, women, and children, released in moments of grief, pain, gratitude, and joy, and captured upon glass slides. These duotone photographs reveal the beauty of recurring patterns in nature and present evocative, crystalline imagery for contemplation. Underscored by poetic captions, they translate the mysterious act of crying into an atlas mapping the structure and magnificence of our interior lives.”[2] → I have to confess that I find the whole scope and idea and intention of this project fascinating – the idea that the tears we cry for different occasions truly look different on a fundamental level, and yet, at the same time, there is also a powerful similarity in the microscopic make-up of those tears.
      • Tears of joy
      • Tears of grief
      • Tears of shame
      • Tears of relief
      • Tears of longing
      • Tears of frustration
    • Throughout Lent this year, we’re talking about the different roles that Jesus plays.
      • Last week = Jesus’ role as Compassionate One
      • This week = Jesus who calls us to repent → And today’s passage is a really interesting passage for taking a closer look at that role because I think it finds Jesus calling us to repent in some unexpected ways.
        • Usually think of a call to repentance as something sobering and solemn, even stern, maybe – a religious “calling to task,” if you will, sort of like being called to the principal’s office when you were a kid → But when we read these passages this morning, I think we hear a very different sort of call to repentance from Jesus – a gentler call, a compassionate call, a call that comes not from a place of judgment and severity but from a place of longing … longing for relationship, longing for restoration, longing for us.
  • Narrative Lectionary gave us these two portions of ch. 13 from Lk’s gospel this morning – vv. 1-9, then vv. 31-35 – so we’ve already got two different approaches to this call for repentance → But I think we can even divide that first part of our text into two distinct sections – Jesus’ conversation with the crowd being one and the parable of the of the barren fig tree being the other. So let’s take a look at each of these three calls to repentance on their own.
    • First = section titled “Demand for genuine change” or, more starkly, “Repent or Perish” in many Bibles
      • Context: part of a much larger portion of text in which Jesus is teaching a huge crowd somewhere outside of Jerusalem – begins back in ch. 12: When a crowd of thousands upon thousands had gathered so that they were crushing each other, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples.[3] → partway through Jesus’ discussion with his disciples, someone from the crowd raises a question for Jesus which redirects his attention (and his teaching) to the larger crowd[4] → today’s text = continuation of that teaching for the enormous crowd: Some who were present on that occasion told Jesus about the Galileans whom Pilate had killed while they were offering sacrifices.[5]
        • Unfortunately not an event that we have any more historical information about → still clear that the event the crowd is telling Jesus about was a horrific one
          • Other translation = crowd “told him about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices”[6]
      • Passage just before what we read today = Jesus speaking about judgment, so someone in the crowd brings up this horrific act to ask Jesus if it was payback for the Galileans’ misdeeds – divine retribution, the idea that “they must have done something to deserve such a horrible fate”
        • Ultimately, the basic question of the crowd = certainly a question we still ask today: “Why do bad things happen to good people?
      • Jesus gets to the heart of the matter pretty quickly – text: He replied, “Do you think the suffering of these Galileans proves that they were more sinful than all the other Galileans? No, I tell you, but unless you change your hearts and lives, you will die just as they did.”[7] → Jesus takes the discussion a step further by bringing in an example of not human-caused evil (as in the case of Pilate killing the Galileans while they made their sacrifices) but of natural evil = the falling of the tower of Siloam – text: What about those eighteen people who were killed when the tower of Siloam fell on them? Do you think that they were more guilty of wrongdoing than everyone else who lives in Jerusalem? No, I tell you, but unless you change your hearts and lives, you will die just as they did.[8]
      • Jesus’ call to repentance in this portion of the passage is a more subtle call and comes in the form of the caution that he repeats for the crowd: “Unless you change your hearts and lives, you will die just as they did.” → I hear a longing in this call. Maybe even an edge of desperation. First, Jesus is given the extreme example by the crowd – those who were murdered by Pilate in the midst of their act of sacred worship – but Jesus adds to that extreme example with his own, making it clear to the crowd that, while we can’t keep bad things from happening, we can guard our hearts and souls from the devastation of eternal death by repenting – by changing our hearts and lives and reorienting them toward God.
        • I hear Jesus as insistent
        • I hear Jesus as emphatic
        • I hear Jesus as trying to get this message of repentance across to the people around him because he knows exactly what’s at stake. If he were crying tears during this exchange, I imagine they’d be tears of anxiety … tears of fear … tears of concern. I wonder what those tears would have looked like. [PAUSE]
    • Second portion of the text = related to the first → parable of the fruitless fig tree[9]
      • Short parable about a vineyard owner who planted a fig tree → fig tree failed to produce year after year for three years in a row → vineyard own grew frustrated and ordered his gardener to give up on the useless tree and chop it down → gardener negotiates for the life of the tree, promising to give the recalcitrant tree some special attention → final declaration says it all: “Maybe it will produce fruit next year; if not, then you can cut it down.”[10]
        • So let’s talk about fig trees a little bit.[11]
          • Probably the oldest cultivated fruit in the world → some suggestions that humans were planting and harvesting figs 10,000 yrs. ago
          • Grow in warmer climates that our own – native to SW Asia and Mediterranean regions (think Afghanistan to Portugal)
          • Known to live as long as 200 yrs.
          • Produce 1-2 crops of figs per year, depending on the variety
          • Somewhat fickle plant that requires some pretty precise growing conditions, cultivation practices, pruning, irrigation, etc.
      • Fickle … somewhat difficult … requires special attention … sound anything like any human beings you know? Ahhhh … the parable becomes a little clearer.
        • Parable = reminiscent of passage from Exodus where Moses is negotiating with God for the lives of the people of Israel → God has grown angry and frustrated with the fickleness of the Israelites after they made the golden calf → contemplating destroying the Israelites à Moses intercedes on behalf of the people and convinces God to spare them[12]
        • Parable = God is the frustrated vineyard owner, we are the delinquent fig tree, and Jesus is the gardener who promises extra care and attention in a desperate hope for fruit → In this short but powerful parable, we hear Jesus’ call to repentance not in anger or frustration but in compassion. Just like the gardener who was willing to spend his own time and get his hands dirty caring for the fruitless fig tree, Jesus was willing to come down into the messiness of humanity to dwell among us in an attempt to restore our relationship with God – a relationship that bears fruit like we never could have imagined: hope, unconditional love, the glory of God’s kingdom, and above all, grace.
          • Compassionate call to repentance
          • Loving call to repentance
          • If Jesus cried tears with the telling of this parable, I imagine they’d be tears of hopefulness … tears of reverence … tears of devotion. I wonder what those tears would have looked like. [PAUSE]
    • Final portion of our text today = definitely a challenging portion → cryptic, prophetic, and troubling
      • Begins with quite the role reversal: Pharisees coming to warn Jesus: At that time, some Pharisees approached Jesus and said, “Go! Get away from here, because Herod wants to kill you.”[13] → definitely not the role we’ve grown accustomed to the Pharisees playing throughout any of the gospels
        • Some scholars believe this to be an act of political intrigue/subterfuge on the part of the Pharisees[14]
        • However, in other places in the gospels we’re told about a few Pharisees – namely Nicodemus[15] and Joseph of Arimathea[16] – who have heard and believed the message of Jesus despite the suspicion and plotting of the rest of their religious brethren. Perhaps it was one of them that came to Jesus in our passage this morning.
      • No matter who it was that brought the message or their intentions, we hear Jesus’ call to repentance in both defiance and even desperate longing in this final portion this morning
        • Defiance in Jesus’ determination to continue embodying his ministry and delivering his message even in the face of Herod’s threats – text: Jesus said to them, “Go, tell that fox, ‘Look, I’m throwing out demons and healing people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will complete my work. However, it’s necessary for me to travel today, tomorrow, and the next day because it’s impossible for a prophet to be killed outside of Jerusalem.’”[17] → Jesus knows what is of utmost importance here: the mission that God gave him – to seek and save the lost. Jesus knows what is coming. He knows that is time is drawing to a close – that this message about Herod’s intentions is only the beginning. If he were crying tears during this exchange, I imagine they’d be tears of pain … tears of frustration … tears of conviction. I wonder what those tears would have looked like. [PAUSE]
      • Finally, Jesus turns his attention from the Pharisee messengers to Jerusalem itself in his most explicit call to repentance: “Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those who were sent to you! How often I have wanted to gather your people just as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings. But you didn’t want that. Look, your house is abandoned. I tell you, you won’t see me until the time comes when you say, Blessings on the one who comes in the Lord’s name.”[18]
        • Scholar captures the poignancy and power in this passage: The lament of Jesus is unrequited. Jerusalem is unwilling to cease killing the prophets and stoning the messengers. This is part of being human. Jerusalem is not alone or special in this regard. All people, from all cultures, in all times, find ways to reject the fullness of what God desires to give. … We do not travel perfectly; it is not in our nature to do so. Whenever we stray off course, if we listen, we will hear Holy Mother Jesus shaking his head, saying how he longs to gather us up into a protective embrace. We have a traveling companion who walks with us today, tomorrow, and the next day.[19] → In this final portion, we hear longing and unconditional love in Jesus’ call to repentance. Not judgment. Not retribution. Not an intent to shame or deride or subdue us for the mistakes and the sins that require our repentance. Love. Longing. And a desire for us. If he were crying tears during this discourse, I imagine they’d be tears of yearning … tears of adoration … tears of love. I wonder what those tears would have looked like. [PAUSE]

[1] Rose-Lynn Fisher. The Topography of Tears. (New York, NY: Bellevue Literary Press), 2017.


[3] Lk 12:1a.

[4] Lk 12:13.

[5] Lk 13:1.

[6] Lk 13:1 (NRSV).

[7] Lk 13:2-3.

[8] Lk 13:4-5.

[9] Lk 13:6-9.

[10] Lk 13:9.

[11] Paul Alfrey. “Dig the Fig – The Essential Guide to All You Need to Know About Figs” from The Permaculture Research Institute,,as%20long%20as%20200%20years. Posted Sept. 30, 2016, accessed Feb. 28, 2021.

[12] Ex 32:9-14.

[13] Lk 13:31.

[14] Debra J. Mumford. “Luke 13:31-35 – Homiletical Perspective” in Feasting on the Gospels – Luke, vol. 2. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 51, 53.

[15] Jn 3:1-21.

[16] Lk 23:50-53.

[17] Lk 13:32-33.

[18] Lk 13:34-35.

[19] James Burns. “Luke 13:31-35 – Pastoral Perspective” in Feasting on the Gospels – Luke, vol. 2. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 54.

Sunday’s sermon: Jesus Who Shows Compassion

Good Samaritan” by Paulus Hoffman

Text used – Luke 10:25-37

  • According to …
    • DiSC Personality Profile system (took in seminary): Creative Pattern
    • Enneagram: 1w9 (the Idealist)
    • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: INFJ (the Advocate)
    • And that’s just a few of the dozens of possible labels that I could wear thanks to the personality test industry. There are all sorts of ways we try to understand who we are and who the people that we’re working with or living with are nowadays. Corporate settings, business retreats, church conferences – any organization that has spent time trying to dig deep into team building has explored some sort of personality test.
      • Part of the call process with our CPM: reams of forms to fill out including 3 separate personality tests (MBTI, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory … and one other that I’ve long since forgotten)
      • Personality test industry = $500 million dollar industry![1]
      • We do everything we can to try to get down to the root of who we are. We feel like if we better understand ourselves, we’ll better understand the world around us – how we interact with people, how people perceive us, some of our strengths and weaknesses, some of our triggers, the best ways that we can contribute, and so on. We seek to understand what our role is and how it fits in with the roles of the people around us – what piece of the puzzle we happen to be, and how we fit with those around us and with the larger picture. → always interesting to learn about who other people are, the roles they play, and how those roles affect and inform our lives
        • Extra interesting because each different type of test reveals different facets of who we are Because whether you’ve taken 100 personality tests or zero, we all know that personalities are complex, multifaceted things. We are many things to many people, and we play many roles throughout our lives.
    • So that’s the angle we’re going to be taking throughout Lent this year. I wish we could be getting together so we could do our own personality exploration on the side with this, but what we’re going to be focusing on during our worship is the personality of the One who brings us here in the first place. We’re going to be focusing on who Jesus is by reading some of the stories of his life and ministry (brought to us this year by Luke’s gospel) and letting those stories reveal roles that Jesus plays even to today.
  • Story that we’re encountering Jesus through today = probably one of (if not the) most well-known stories in the entire Bible It’s one of those stories familiar to people who have never set foot in a church in their lives. It’s the story of the Good Samaritan.
    • Definitely familiar “Good Samaritan” moniker used in all sorts of different ways – all involving “helping” in some way or another
      • Good Samaritan charities/organizations
      • Good Samaritan hospitals
      • Good Samaritan churches
      • Good Samaritan Society = senior living/rehabilitation facilities here in southern Minnesota[2]
      • If you utter the phrase “Good Samaritan,” people know what you’re talking about.
    • Confession to make this morning: in my 8+ yrs. of ministry, I’ve never preached the Good Samaritan I’ve never preached on this text before because I’ve always felt like it’s one of the few Scripture passages that, for the most part, preaches itself.
      • All know the basic story, right?
        • Begins with one of the legal experts/Pharisees asking Jesus, “What must I do to gain eternal life?” Jesus responds with question about the Law (Pharisee’s area of expertise) which encourages the Pharisee to answer his own question: “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your being, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and love your neighbor as yourself.” not good enough for the Pharisee counters with another question: “But who is my neighbor?”[3]
        • Jesus’ reply = the familiar story: man traveling alone from Jerusalem to Jericho (notoriously treacherous stretch of highways) gets set-upon by a band of thieves who “stripped him naked, beat him up, and left him near death” a number of people happen upon this man in his gravely wounded state as they make their own way along the road – priest sees him but passes by, Levite (spiritual leader) sees him but passes by, Samaritan “was moved with compassion” and stopped to help the man bandaged his wounds, put him on his donkey, took him to an inn, cared for him, and provided funds to the innkeeper for more care to be given to the man until he was well again[4]
        • Passage wraps up with Jesus posing the Pharisee’s question back at him: “What do you think? Which one of these three was a neighbor to the man who encountered thieves?” Pharisee responds, “The one who demonstrated mercy toward him.” Jesus gives what will become one of his trademark instructions (at least in Luke’s gospel): “Go and do likewise.”[5]
      • I mean, the end of the story really preaches itself. It’s a full sermon in two short verses: [Jesus said,] “What do you think? Which of these three was a neighbor to the man who encountered thieves?” Then the legal expert said, “The one who demonstrated mercy toward him.” Jesus told him, “Go and do likewise.”[6]  Done and done, right? It’s clear. It’s concise. There’s a faith lesson involved as well as a directive to go and do (literally). What more do we need?
  • Except that it’s not that clear cut. I mean, it must not be … because here we are 2000 years later, and we still can’t get this right.
    • 2020 has proved that to us in spades
      • Violence done to black and brown bodies over and over and over again while the rest of us look the other way or look for pointless and baseless excuses
      • Politicization of something as simple as wearing masks as a way to protect others during a worldwide pandemic that has killed millions
      • Willfully ignoring and denying systemic racism that has perpetuated poverty, desperation, and an oppressive lack of opportunities for communities of color
    • Beyond just this past year, the last few years …
      • Immigrant families literally torn apart at our southern border
      • Flagrant violation of treaties with indigenous tribes who made their homes on this land millennia before we ever arrived
      • Violence done to the bodies and souls of LGBTQ+ people
      • General villainization of “the other”
        • Anyone whose skin isn’t white
        • Anyone whose first language isn’t English
        • Anyone whose passport doesn’t say “United States of America”
        • Anyone whose faith practice isn’t Christian
    • Not only have we forgotten how to listen to the voices of those who are different from us. We have actively denied and disparaged and attempted to silence those voices. With our words and our intentional silences. With our actions and our inactions.
      • Dr. Mitzi Smith (prof of NT at Columbia Theological Seminary): Disinterested, dehumanizing distance and ignorance makes no demands and takes no risks for others. … When do our class, race, gender, ethnic, ideological, cultural, and religious differences promote dehumanization of ourselves and of others? Dehumanizing others dehumanizes us.[7]
  • But still we have our story for this morning staring us in the face, and we hear again Jesus’ call to compassion. Let’s look a little more closely at our story again.
    • 3 people that encounter the injured man = priest, Levite, and Samaritan
      • Priest and Levite = presumably same ethnic and religious background as the injured man Jews from the area
      • But the Samaritan is another story. Samaritans = technical Jews from the northern kingdom of Israel BUT their ancestors weren’t deported during the time of the Babylonian exile These were the people left behind in the conquered city and surrounding area.
        • Resulted in Jews intermarrying with Assyrian conquerors Jews thought of the Samaritans as half-bloods and “second-class citizens”[8]
        • Resulted in a different form of religious practice Jews thought of the Samaritans as “untrustworthy heretics”[9]
        • Needless to say, Samaritans were despised and actively discriminated against.
    • And yet Jesus makes the Samaritan the example in this passage – the example of being a true neighbor, the example of right action, the example of compassion.
      • Scholar: As a way of illustrating where the center of gravity lies within the story, consider which actors are related to the nearly thirty verb forms in the parable. The victim of the mugging is the subject of two verbs. The robbers are the subject of four verbs. The priest and Levite are the subject of three verbs each, enough to walk the road, see the man, and pass by. The innkeeper is the subject of two verbs. The Samaritan is the subject of fifteen verbs.[10]  Clearly, it’s the actions of this “other” that we’re supposed to pay attention to and learn from. Jesus makes it abundantly clear that the one who crosses all of those arbitrary, societal “other” lines is the one who is acting as God desires.
        • Smith’s description: [This is] a parable narrative about human beings and how they respond to traumatized, violated, unsheltered, and/or marginalized others. This parable is about men—a priest, Levite, and Samaritan—who must make significant decisions at the intersection of ethnicity/race, gender, human victimization, and desperation.[11]
  • Friends, the reality of history is that Jesus was a dark-skinned, curly haired, Middle Eastern Jew. In circumstance, he was about as far from you and I as he could possibly get. And yet he came for us. He came for all of us. He came to show compassion in ways that continue to challenge and astound us. In his ministry, Jesus himself showed compassion in some of the most unlikely, unexpected, and unwelcomed circumstances: sinners and screw-ups, outcasts and misfits, those who had been labeled unclean and unwanted, tax collectors and even Pharisees – those whom he knew would one day take his life. But his compassion never waivered. How often can we say the same? Amen.

[1] Emma Goldberg. “Personality Tests Are the Astrology of the Office” from The New York Times, Published Sept. 17, 2019, accessed Feb. 21, 2021.


[3] Lk 10:25-29.

[4] Lk 10:30-35.

[5] Lk 10:36-37.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Mitzi J. Smith. “Commentary on Luke 10:25-37” for The Working Preacher, For Feb. 21, 2021, accessed Feb. 21, 2021.

[8] Mary Miller Brueggemann. “Luke 10:25-37 – Pastoral Perspective” in Feasting on the Gospels: Luke, vol. 1. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 298.

[9] Douglas F. Ottati. “Luke 10:25-37 – Theological Perspective” in Feasting on the Gospels: Luke, vol. 1. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 298.

[10] Mary Hinkle Shore. “Luke 10:25-37 – Exegetical Perspective” in Feasting on the Gospels: Luke, vol. 1. (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2014), 299.

[11] Smith.

Sunday’s sermon: Love You Forever

Texts used – Deuteronomy 6:4-9 and John 17:20-26

  • You all know just how important children’s books are and always have been to me. No surprise when your Mom was a children’s librarian for 40 yrs!
    • So many lessons to be learned alongside compelling storylines and fantastic illustrations! → describe Galena Sunday school lessons (taught Sunday school as a part of my church internship and created curriculum out of “regular” children’s books paired with Scripture and some crafts/activities): I was very particular about picking out “non-churchy” children’s books. You see, it was really important to me that these books be ones that the kids could easily come across in their everyday life – at home, in their library time at school, and so on. By connecting those everyday children’s books to a lesson about faith, it was my hope that their encounters with those books outside of our Sunday school class would give them a flash of God in the midst of their ordinary days. I guess you could say I wanted the books to continue teaching them about faith long after our Sunday school lesson was over.
      • Believe it or not, the passage from Deuteronomy that we just read actually talks about this. Well, sort of … it can be interpreted that way, anyway.
        • Text: Love the LORD your God with all your heart, all your being, and all your strength. These words that I am commanding you today must always be on your minds. Recite them to your children. Talk about them when you are sitting around your house and when you are out and about, when you are lying down and when you are getting up.[1]
          • Heb. word translated as “recite” could also mean “repeat” – some other translations say “impress on your children” → Anyone who’s been around kids – their own or someone else’s – knows that the more ways and opportunities you can find to present an idea to kids, the more likely it is that that idea will stick! It’s just like my intentions with using “regular” children’s books for our Sunday school lessons.
            • Text: talk about it when you are sitting around your house → having dinner or at bath time
            • Text: talk about it when you’re out and about → in the car or while you’re grocery shopping
            • Text: talk about it when you’re lying down → before they go to bed at night
            • Text: talk about it when they get up in the morning
          • So what’s the “it” that this passage wants you to repeat? It’s simple: Love God!
  • Now, this may sound a little counterintuitive, but there’s actually a problem with this message: you’ve probably heard it at least a million times before, especially around Valentine’s Day weekend. You’ve heard it so many times that maybe it’s past the point of “repeating for the sake of learning” and reached the point of “in one ear and out the other.” So this morning, I’m going to present it just a little differently. After all, we aren’t really all that different from kids sometimes, are we? We like hearing important messages expressed in a variety of ways. This morning you all get to be kids again. You get to sit back and just relax while I read you a story. This book is called Love You Forever.
    • Author: Robert Munsch, illustrator: Sheila McGraw, publisher: Firefly Books → read book[2]

  • Power of love, right?! → Not surprisingly, love is obviously a concept scattered all throughout the Bible. In fact, the word love in all its various forms – love, loved, loving, and beloved – shows up 757 times in the Bible!
    • And this message is extra clear in the New Testament. Today’s text from the gospel of John sheds a little light on the reason for that clarity.
      • Context for John passage = subsection of much longer intercessory prayer that Jesus prays toward the end of his time on earth – today’s subsection entitled “The prayer for the church” in most Bibles → This is a very intimate moment between Jesus and God. In the other gospels, we’re told that Jesus is in the Garden of Gethsemane at this point, though John doesn’t actually say that. By now, Jesus has already said farewell to his disciples and dismissed Judas to carry out his betrayal. In fact, directly following this passage is John’s account of Jesus’ betrayal and arrest. So that means that in his last unrestrained moments, Jesus decides to spend that precious time praying … for us.
        • Think of what else Jesus could have been asking for
          • Freedom
          • Strength
          • Spared from pain
          • Instead he’s interceding on our behalf
        • Self-sacrifice reminds me of the mother at the end of Love You Forever → she knows the end of her life is near, but she still tries to sing her song to her son
      • In the gospel passage that we read today, Jesus is praying that the message of his ministry will continue.
        • Just prior to today’s section = prayer for the disciples → important for understanding the lead-in to our text today – text (began with): “I’m not praying only for them but also for those who believe in me because of their word.”[3] → Jesus is transitioning the subject of his prayer from the disciples to those who will follow the disciples –“those who will believe in me through their word” … that’s us! We are the ones who believe in Christ because of the words of those who have come before, but we can also be the ones speaking words of witness, conviction, and faith. We can be part of that chain – a living, breathing continuation of Jesus’ prayer from centuries ago. We can be the ones continuing Christ’s ministry.
        • Jesus even gives us the major emphasis of that ministry here – text: I’ve given them the glory that you gave me so that they can be one just as we are one. I’m in them and you are in me so that they will be made perfectly one. Then the world will know that you sent me and that you have loved them just as you loved me.[4] → Over and over again throughout this passage, Jesus says that we are in God and God is in us. This is what gives us the power and ability to reach out to others in faith. But how can God be in us?
  • Read 1 John 4:7-19 → It does seem pretty clear, doesn’t it? God is LOVE! It says it 23 times in this passage alone!
    • Stated explicitly – vv. 8 & 16: God is love → Three small, simple words that mean so incredibly much! God lives in us in the truest and purest form of love imaginable.
      • Ties back to the life and ministry of Jesus – from 1 Jn: This is how the love of God is revealed to us: God has sent his only Son into the world so that we can live through him. This is love: it is not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son as the sacrifice that deals with our sins.[5] → “God sent his only Son into the world so that we can live through him. This is love.” You see, friends, God knows our sins even more completely than we do. Yet what does God do for us?
        • God: Continues to love us → to long for that deep connection with us even as we wander farther and farther away
        • Book: It’s like the mother in the book. Even as her son was growing older – more independent and sometimes more distant, both emotionally as a teenager and physically as an adult – she still longed for that connection.
        • God: made the effort to reconnect with us through the loving life and ministry of God’s only Son, Jesus Christ → God couldn’t stand the separation any longer! God created us out of love in God’s own image – an image that is first and foremost recognizable in love itself, in that we have the capacity to love because that capacity to love existed first in God and came first from God.
          • 1 Jn text: If we love one another, God lives in us, and his love is perfected in us. By this we know that we abide in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit.[6]
        • Book: That mother crawled across floors. That mother drove across town. That mother hefted her son into her lap long after he’d surpassed her in size. It all stemmed from love – an outpouring of love so powerful, so strong, so undeniable that even when we aren’t aware of it (like the boy while he was sleeping), that love wraps us up and reassuringly rocks us back and forth, back and forth, back and forth.
          • 1 Jn put it about as simply as possible: We love because God first loved us.[7]
  • Friends, this is the gospel message! As God’s children, the Holy Spirit abides with us, enveloping us always in God’s love, so when we’re loving others, we’re offering them the love of God and all that it entails. Sharing love is sharing God. And truly, friends, hear me today: God loves you! Whether this is something you’ve been hearing all your life or something you’ve never heard before, it never hurts to hear, “I love you” one more time. God will love us forever. God will like us for always. As long as we’re living – and even longer – God’s children we will be. Alleluia! Amen.

[1] Deut 6:5-7.

[2] Robert Munsch. Love You Forever. (Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books Ltd.), 1986.

[3] Jn 17:20.

[4] Jn 17:22-23.

[5] 1 Jn 4:9-10.

[6] 1 Jn 4:12-13.

[7] 1 Jn 4:19.